Coexisting Disabilities

People with Dyslexia may have coexisting disabilities, such as dysgraphia, dyscalculia, or ADHD.

Dysgraphia means difficulty with handwriting. There are several different kinds of dysgraphia. Some people with dysgraphia have handwriting that is often illegible and shows irregular and inconsistent letter formations. Others write legibly, but very slowly and/or very small. When these individuals revert to printing, as they often do, their writing is often a random mixture of upper- and lowercase letters. In all cases of dysgraphia, writing requires inordinate amounts of energy, stamina, and time. has some wonderful information on dysgraphia:

Dyscalculia is a difficulty with math. People with dyscalculia have problems with “number sense.”  Some school-aged students can’t even remember their birth date because the concept is too abstract. They have problems understanding concepts like biggest vs. smallest. They typically have trouble remembering math facts such as addition or multiplication.  Some people with dyscalculia might have trouble counting money, estimating time, and judging speed or distance. They might have trouble holding numbers in their heads while solving problems.  As math gets more advanced they have trouble understanding the logic behind the math. People with the right supports can learn to thrive with dyscalculia. has some suggestions:

ADHD (Attention-Deficit Hyperactivy Disorder) is charcterized by inattention, distractibility, hyperactivity and/or impulsivity.  Children with ADHD find it difficult to concentrate on tasks, to pay attention, to sit still, and to control impulsive behavior. Some children with ADHD exhibit mostly inattentive behaviors and others predominantly hyperactive and impulsive. But the majority of those with ADHD have a combination of both.  

Many resources exist to help students with ADHD, including this article from

Executive function issues often occur with people that suffer from dyslexia.  “Executive function” refers to a group of skills needed for learning and managing everyday life.  People with executive function issues may have trouble holding on to information, trouble understanding different points of view or trouble thinking before they act or speak.  They often lose track of what they are doing, and cannot organize, plan, or prioritize.  Starting a task and staying focused on a task is a challenge for those with executive function issues. 

Here are some wonderful helps for people with executive function issues:

                                                                                                                                          ((Sources: &